Questions about assembly routines

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Vader_Mester
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Questions about assembly routines

Postby Vader_Mester » Wed May 23, 2018 2:00 pm

Hi All,

I have a question regarding coding in Assembly in the ESP32.
There are some things I want to know, I try to be brief.

1) I know that certianly I can use Inline assembler in the ESP32, I'm trying to use extended assembly.
Which constraints are available? I'm mostly concerned about register related constraints.
For example for the x86 the a document I found says:
When the "r" constraint is specified, gcc may keep the variable in any of the available General Purpose Registers. We can also specify the register names directly by using specific register constraints.
+---+--------------------+
| r | Register(s) |
+---+--------------------+
| a | %eax, %ax, %al |
| b | %ebx, %bx, %bl |
| c | %ecx, %cx, %cl |
| d | %edx, %dx, %dl |
| S | %esi, %si |
| D | %edi, %di |
+---+--------------------+

How can this be reflexted to the ESP32, and Xtensa stuff? (BTW I have the Xtensa manual with the instruction and register descriptions, but no info about assembler contraints.

2) How careful should I be using the A registers (A0-A15) during coding? I guess this comes from the contstraints, but I just wanna make sure, I do things correctly.

Thanks
Vader
There are 2 types of programmer people: The Expert programmer and The Smart programmer

The Expert programmer easily writes any code from scratch.
The Smart programmer uses his google/github powers first ;)

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Vader_Mester
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Re: Questions about assembly routines

Postby Vader_Mester » Wed May 23, 2018 9:20 pm

By the way the code in question supposed to be an RGB+Alpha blending algorithm :) I hope I didn't messed it up that much.
Prototype, no for cycle yet.

Did not try to compile it yet.

Code: Select all

uint16_t cAlphaBlendA8RGB16(clr_a8rgb16_t fg, uint16_t bg)
{
/* RGB color mixing of "layer" with background data, using layer alpha channel
*
*/
   uint8_t alpha = fg.A;
   uint32_t fg = fg.rgb16;
   uint16_t bg;
   uint16_t result = 0;

 
  //The equation below is made from the original color mixing equation, to avoid using devision and fraction
  //This equation assumes that background is always not transparent.
  //Accuracy of this is very good. 90%of time the 8bits of the color components are the same.
  //Difference can maybe occur in the last LSB bit, but that does nearly nothing noticeable.
  //MY EXCEL sheet confirms all this.
  //This function should make the following equation (with order of execution)
  // ____III._______
  //         _______II.______
  //             ___I.___     __IV.__
  // ((fg*fg.A)+(256-fg.A)*bg)/256
  // The final devide by 256 is supplemented by a shifting to right by 8.
  //
  //Where fg is the layers color component (R, G or B), bg is the background color
  //Alpha is the alpha component of layer, bg has no alpha (non transparent)
  //result
  //%0: result (output)
  //%1: fg (input)
  //%2: bg (input)
  //%3: alpha (input)
    __asm__ __volatile__ (
    "MOVI %%a0, $0"
    "wsr  %%a0, %%ACCLO"   //sets MAC16 ACC to 0
     "isync"
    "MOVI %%a1, $256"      //puts 256 into reg A3
    "MOVI %%a2, %3"      //loads a
    "SUB %%a1, %%a1, %%a2"   //256-fg.A - I.
    "MOVI %%a3, %1"         //loads fgcolor to A3
    "MOVI %%a4, %2"         //loads bgcolor to A4
    "MOVI %%a5, 31"      //Loads 0x11111b mask
    //for B
    "AND %%a6, %%a3, %a5"   //ands mask and fg for Blue components of layer, stores it in A6
    "AND %%a7, %%a4, %a5"   //ands mask and bg for Blue components of background, stores it in A7
    "MULA.AA.HH %%a2, %%a6"   //1st multiplication -  II.
    "MULA.AA.HH %%a1, %%a7"   //2nd multiplication, result in ACCLO - III.
    "SRLI %%a8, %%ACCLO, 8"   //store ACC result in A8 shifted right by 8 - IV.
    //for G
    "MOVI %%a0, $0"
    "wsr  %a0, %%ACCLO"   //sets MAC16 ACC to 0
     "isync"
    "MOVI %%a5, $63"
    "SLLI %%a5, %%a5, 5"
    "AND %%a6, %%a3, %a5"   //ands mask and fg for G components, stores it in A6
    "AND %%a7, %%a4, %a5"   //ands mask and fg for G components, stores it in A7
    "MULA.AA.HH %%a2, %%a6"   //1st multiplication
    "MULA.AA.HH %%a1, %%a7"   //2nd multiplication, result in ACCLO
    "SRLI %%a9, %%ACCLO, 8"   //store ACC result in A9 shifter right by 8
   
    //for R
    "MOVI %%a0, $0"
    "wsr  %a0, %%ACCLO"   //sets MAC16 ACC to 0
     "isync"
    "MOVI %%a5, $31"
    "SLLI %%a5, %%a5, 13"
    "AND %%a6, %%a3, %a5"   //ands mask and fg for G components, stores it in A6
    "AND %%a7, %%a4, %a5"   //ands mask and fg for G components, stores it in A7
    "MULA.AA.HH %%a2, %%a6"   //1st multiplication
    "MULA.AA.HH %%a1, %%a7"   //2nd multiplication, result in ACCLO
    "SRLI %%a10, %%ACCLO, 8"   //store ACC result in A10 shifter right by 8
   
    //creating the resulted R5G6B5 format
    //this section can be different to produce different end formats
    "SRLI %%a8, %%a8, 3"
    "SRLI %%a9, %%a9, 2"
    "SLLI %%a9, %%a9, 5"
    "SRLI %%a10, %%a10, 3"
    "SLLI %%a10, %%a10, 13"
    "ADD %%a8, %%a8, %%a9"
    "ADD %3, %%a8, %%a10"
    : "=r" (result)
    : "r" (alpha), "r" (fg), "r" (bg)
    : "%ACCLO", "%a0", "%a1", "%a2", "%a3", "%a4", "%a5", "%a6", "%a7"
    );
}
There are 2 types of programmer people: The Expert programmer and The Smart programmer

The Expert programmer easily writes any code from scratch.
The Smart programmer uses his google/github powers first ;)

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Vader_Mester
Posts: 210
Joined: Tue Dec 05, 2017 8:28 pm
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Re: Questions about assembly routines

Postby Vader_Mester » Mon May 28, 2018 6:51 am

Seem like assembly scares people away :twisted:
There are 2 types of programmer people: The Expert programmer and The Smart programmer

The Expert programmer easily writes any code from scratch.
The Smart programmer uses his google/github powers first ;)

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